Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads. He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal schooling, he did not finish his studies there. In his mature years, in addition to his many-sided literary activities, he managed the family estates, a project which brought him into close touch with common humanity and increased his interest in social reforms. He also started an experimental school at Shantiniketan where he tried his Upanishadic ideals of education. From time to time he participated in the Indian nationalist movement, though in his own non-sentimental and visionary way; and Gandhi, the political father of modern India, was his devoted friend. Tagore was knighted by the ruling British Government in 1915, but within a few years he resigned the honour as a protest against British policies in India. Tagore had early success as a writer in his native Bengal. With his translations of some of his poems he became rapidly known in the West. In fact his fame attained a luminous height, taking him across continents on lecture tours and tours of friendship. For the world he became the voice of India's spiritual heritage; and for India, especially for Bengal, he became a great living institution.

Although Tagore wrote successfully in all literary genres, he was first of all a poet. Among his fifty and odd volumes of poetry are Manasi (1890) [The Ideal One], Sonar Tari (1894) [The Golden Boat], Gitanjali (1910) [Song Offerings], Gitimalya (1914) [Wreath of Songs], and Balaka (1916) [The Flight of Cranes]. The English renderings of his poetry, which include The Gardener (1913), Fruit-Gathering (1916), and The Fugitive (1921), do not generally correspond to particular volumes in the original Bengali; and in spite of its title, Gitanjali: Song Offerings (1912), the most acclaimed of them, contains poems from other works besides its namesake. Tagore's major plays are Raja (1910) [The King of the Dark Chamber], Dakghar (1912) [The Post Office], Achalayatan (1912) [The Immovable], Muktadhara (1922) [The Waterfall], and Raktakaravi (1926) [Red Oleanders]. He is the author of several volumes of short stories and a number of novels, among them Gora (1910), Ghare-Baire (1916) [The Home and the World], and Yogayog (1929) [Crosscurrents]. Besides these, he wrote musical dramas, dance dramas, essays of all types, travel diaries, and two autobiographies, one in his middle years and the other shortly before his death in 1941. Tagore also left numerous drawings and paintings, and songs for which he wrote the music himself.

From Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Editor Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.


Rabindranath Tagore died on August 7, 1941.

Kazi Nazrul Islam

Kazi Nazrul Islam  (25 May 1899–29 August 1976) was a Bengalipoet, musician, revolutionary, and philosopher who pioneered poetic works espousing intense spiritual rebellion against orthodoxy and oppression. His poetry and nationalist activism earned him the popular title of Bidrohi Kobi (Rebel Poet). Accomplishing a large body of acclaimed works through his life, Nazrul is officially recognised as the national poet of Bangladesh and commemorated in India.

Born into a poor Muslim family, Nazrul received religious education and worked as a muezzin at a local mosque. He learned of poetry, drama, and literature while working with theatrical groups. After serving in the British Indian Army, Nazrul established himself as a journalist in Kolkata (then Calcutta). He assailed the British Raj in India and preached revolution through his poetic works, such as "Bidrohi" ("The Rebel") and "Bhangar Gaan" ("The Song of Destruction"), as well as his publication "Dhumketu" ("The Comet"). His impassioned activism in the Indian independence movement often led to his imprisonment by British authorities. While in prison, Nazrul wrote the "Rajbandir Jabanbandi" ("Deposition of a Political Prisoner"). Exploring the life and conditions of the downtrodden masses of India, Nazrul worked for their emancipation.

Nazrul's writings explore themes such as love, freedom, and revolution; he opposed all bigotry, including religious and gender. Throughout his career, Nazrul wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best-known for his poems, in which he pioneered new forms such as Bengali ghazals. Nazrul wrote and composed music for his nearly 4,000 songs (including gramophone records) [1], collectively known as Nazrul geeti (Nazrul songs), which are widely popular today. At the age of 43 (in 1942) he began suffering from an unknown disease, losing his voice and memory. Eventually diagnosed as Pick's disease, it caused Nazrul's health to decline steadily and forced him to live in isolation for many years. Invited by the Government of Bangladesh, Nazrul and his family moved to Dhaka in 1972, where he died four years later.

Saratchandra Chattopadhyay

Saratchandra Chattopadhyay the man who has woven magic with his words and some unforgettable series of writings, knew Bengal thoroughly. A master who’s lucid and simple style of writing appeared to be a welcome break for the bangali readers, from the tradition of that time. Saratchandra Chattopadhyay was born on September 15, 1876 at Devanandapur in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. His father was Motilal Chattopadhyay and mother was Bhubanmohini. In the year 1894, he passed the Entrance Examination from TN Jubilee Collegiate School and was admitted to FA class but he could not complete the studies because of the poor financial condition. At the age of 27 he went to Burma and found a job as a clerk in a government office at Rangoon. His first novel 'Badadidi'(1907), made him instantly popular among the readers. 'Bindur chhele'(1913), 'Parinita'(1914), 'Baikunther will'(1916), 'Devdas'(1917), 'Srikanta'(Part I-IV, 1917-1933), 'Charirtrahin'(1917) are few of his most popular novels. His novel 'Pather Dabi' (1926), was banned by the British government for its revolutionary theme. Indranath and Srikanta are most endearing characters he created . He depicted the rural Bengali characters as characters of simplicity yet strength in his writings. He was honored for his contribution to Bengali Literature. He got 'Kuntalin puraskar'(1903), 'Jagattarini Svarna Padak'(1923), membership of 'Bangiya Sangeet Parishad'(1934) and an honorary D.litt by the Dhaka University in the year 1936. Many of his novel have successfully dramatized on stage and adapted to movies. He wrote more about bangali women and their situation in a patriarchal society frankly and honestly. He voiced his protest against the social discrimination, injustices and superstitions. He died in Kolkata on January 16, 1938.

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (27 June 1838 - 8 April 1894) (Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) ('Chattopadhyay' in the original Bengali; 'Chatterjee' as spelt by the British) was a Bengali poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of  Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram, that inspired the freedom fighters of India, and was later declared the National Song of India. 

Chatterjee is considered as a key figure in literary renaissance of Bengal as well as India. Some of his writings, including novels, essays and commentaries, were a breakaway from traditional verse-oriented Indian writings, and provided an inspiration for authors across India.

He was married at a very young of age of eleven, his first wife died in 1859. He later married Rajalakshmi Devi. They had three daughters.

Shamsur Rahman

Shamsur Rahman (Bangla: শামসুর রাহমান Shamsur Rŭhman) (October 24, 1929 – August 17, 2006) was a Bangladeshi poet, columnist and journalist. Rahman, who emerged in the latter half of the 20th century, wrote more than sixty books of poetry and is considered a key figure in Bengali literature. He was regarded the unofficial poet laureate of Bangladesh. Major themes in his poetry and writings include liberal humanism, human relations, romanticised rebellion of youth, the emergence of and consequent events in Bangladesh, and opposition to religious fundamentalism.

Shamsur Rahman's first book of poetry, "Prothom Gaan Dwityo Mrittyur Agey" (Tr. First Song Before the Second Death) was published in 1960. He had to go through the political turbulence of 60's and 70's which also reflected in his poems clearly. He wrote his famous poem "Asader Shirt" which was written with respect to the mass uprisingof 1969 led by Maulana Bhasani. During the Bangladesh Liberation War he wrote a number of extra ordinary poems based on the war. These poems were so inspiring that they were recited at the camps of freedom fighters.[2] Later these poems were published in "Bondi Shibir Theke" (Tr. From Confinement in Enemy Territory) in 1972. Later he continued writing poems in the independent Bangladesh and remained as the poet whose poems reflect the history of the nation. During the historical movement against Ershad he published his book "Buk Tar Bangladesher Hridoy" indicating the great sacrifice of Nur Hossain.

Shamsur Rahman wrote most of his poems in free verse, often with the rhythm style known as Poyaar or Okhshorbritto. It is popularly known that he followed this pattern from poet Jibanananda Das. He also wrote poems in two other major patterns of Bengali rhythmic style, namely, Matrabritto and Shwarobritto.

স্বাধীনতা তুমি

স্বাধীনতা তুমি রবি ঠাকুরের অজর কবিতা, অবিনাশী গান
স্বাধীনতা তুমি কাজী নজরুল, ঝাকড়া চুলের বাবরি দোলানো মহান পুরুষ
সৃষ্টি সুখের উল্লাশে কাঁপা

Humayun Ahmed

Humayun Ahmed: (born 1948) is arguably the most popular Bengali writer of fiction and drama, and had a "meteoric rise in Bangla literature" since the publication of his first novel, Nondito Noroke.[1] A prolific writer, he has been publishing since the early 1970s. Formerly a professor of Department of Chemistry at the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, he is now a full-time author and movie-maker.

Humayun Ahmed was born to Foyzur Rahman (a writer) and Ayesha Foyez on 13 November 1948 in Kutubpur of Mymensingh district in then East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. Humayun Ahmed's younger brother Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, a university professor, is a newspaper columnist and writer of children's books and science fiction [4]. Another brother, Ahsan Habib, is the editor of the only cartoon magazine of Bangladesh.Unmad.

Humayun Ahmed married Gultekin, granddaughter of Principal Ibrahim Khan, in 1973. They had five children, but were divorced in 2005, after which Ahmed married Meher Afroz Shaon, a young actress (and friend of his daughter) whom he had met when she was only 12 years old. These and other similar relations brought him much infamy.

Humayun Ahmed attended the Chittagong Collegiate School and Bogra Zilla School for his secondary education, then Dhaka College. After graduating from the University of Dhaka, Ahmed joined the department of chemistry in the same university as a lecturer. He obtained his PhD in polymer chemistry from North Dakota State University under the guidance of Professor Joseph Edward Glass. Ahmed retired from the University of Dhaka for the sake of writing and film-making. He is an honorary fellow in writing at the University of Iowa.

Humayun Ahmed is not a professional song writer, but he has written a number songs mainly for the films and plays he has produced. Some of his songs are "Ami aaj bhejabo coukh somudrer joley," "Chadni poshor ratey," and "Amaaar achey jol."

Humayun Ahmed has received considerable criticism from the literary critics of the country. One of the most common one leveled against him is that the quality of his work has deteriorated after he gained popularity and started writing for money at the request of his publishers [7]. His brother Muhammed Zafar Iqbal once said "Humayun Ahmed has a great camera, but he only takes picture of birthday parties", referring to his brilliant prose but allegedly trivial subject matters. The main criticism was that he was repeating the same theme and structure time and again for decades[8]. However, from 2003, he is writing more serious and informative novels. Even though he is a well known writer and has huge impact on the mass population, he did not make any attempt to change the view of the society, encourage young population to engage in altruistic activities and philanthropic task which is very easy from the platform he is standing.